Physician perspectives on integration of artificial intelligence

Advancements in computer vision and artificial intelligence (AI) carry the potential to make significant contributions to health care, particularly in diagnostic specialties such as radiology and pathology. The impact of these technologies on physician stakeholders is the subject of significant speculation. There is however a dearth of information regarding the opinions, enthusiasm, and concerns of the pathology community at large. Here, we report results from a survey of 487 pathologist-respondents practicing in 54 countries, conducted to examine perspectives on AI implementation in clinical practice. Despite limitations, including difficulty with quantifying response bias and verifying identity of respondents to this anonymous and voluntary survey, several interesting findings were uncovered. Overall, respondents carried generally positive attitudes towards AI, with nearly 75% reporting interest or excitement in AI as a diagnostic tool to facilitate improvements in workflow efficiency and quality assurance in pathology. Importantly, even within the more optimistic cohort, a significant number of respondents endorsed concerns about AI, including the potential for job displacement and replacement. Overall, around 80% of respondents predicted the introduction of AI technology in the pathology laboratory within the coming decade. Attempts to identify statistically significant demographic characteristics (e.g., age, sex, type/place of practice) predictive of attitudes towards AI using Kolmogorov–Smirnov (KS) testing revealed several associations. Important themes which were commented on by respondents included the need for increasing efforts towards physician training and resolving medical-legal implications prior to the generalized implementation of AI in pathology.