This article was originally published here
Biomed J. 2021 Sep 18:S2319-4170(21)00114-1. doi: 10.1016/j.bj.2021.09.002. Online ahead of print.
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a frequently observed developmental neuropsychological disorder occurring in children. The pathophysiology involves both genetic and environmental factors. In this review, clinical characteristics, pathophysiology, and treatment approaches based on the pathophysiology of TS are presented. The pathophysiology is the acceleration of developmental decrement of dopamine (DA) activity at the terminal of nigro-striatal (NS)-DA system causing DA D2 receptor up-ward regulation. Serotonergic neurons involving in development of the biphasic sleep-wake-rhythm, and locomotion may be involved. Pharmacological treatments constitute an important part in managing TS. Small dose of levodopa and aripiprazole showed the good effect controlling the tics, without side effects. Intervention with enhancing the day time activity and keeping the regular sleep-wake-rhythm, and encouraging locomotion are important. The data from Yoshiko Nomura Neurological Clinic for Children regarding the clinical features and outcomes, medication effects, and OCD and outcomes are shown. To discuss about the environmental factor, how the COVID-19 pandemic affected the TS patients is also presented.