Periodic breathing in patients with stable obstructive sleep apnea on long-term continuous positive airway pressure treatment: a retrospective study using CPAP remote monitoring data

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Sleep Breath. 2021 Oct 14. doi: 10.1007/s11325-021-02510-0. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the rate of periodic breathing (PB) and factors associated with the emergence or persistence of PB in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) remote monitoring data.

METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study on 775 patients who had used the same model CPAP machine for at least 1 year as of September 1, 2020. The data were analyzed online using the dedicated analysis system. Using exporter software, average apnea/hypopnea index (AHI), average central apnea index (CAI), and average the rate of PB time (PB%) were cited.

RESULTS: Among 618 patients analyzed (age 61.7 ± 12.2 years, male 89%, BMI 27.2 ± 4.9), the average duration of CPAP use was 7.5 ± 4.0 years. The median PB% in stable patients was low at 0.32%, and only 149 patients (24%) had a PB% above 1%. Multiple regression analysis of factors for the development of PB showed that the most important factor was atrial fibrillation (Af) with a coefficient of 0.693 (95% CI; 0.536 to 0.851), followed by QRS duration with a coefficient of 0.445 (95% CI; 0.304 to 0.586), followed by history of heart failure, male sex, comorbid hypertension, obesity, and age. The average PB% for paroxysmal Af was significantly lower than that for persistent and permanent Af.

CONCLUSIONS: The median PB% in stable patients on CPAP treatment was low at 0.32%, with only 24% of patients having PB% ≥ 1%. Persistent Af and an increase in QRS duration were found to be important predictors of increased PB%.

CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN000042555 2021/01/01.

PMID:34651259 | DOI:10.1007/s11325-021-02510-0