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Cureus. 2022 Apr 16;14(4):e24188. doi: 10.7759/cureus.24188. eCollection 2022 Apr.
We report the fiftieth case in the literature of Pasteurella species peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis and the third reported case of Pasteurella multocida bacteremia associated with PD-related peritonitis. Our review provides the most up-to-date collection of all fifty reported cases of PD-related peritonitis caused by Pasteurella species. A 77-year-old Caucasian male with a past medical history significant for new-onset left-ventricular systolic heart failure, severe mitral valve regurgitation, and end-stage renal disease on PD for six months presented to the emergency department with a one-week cloudy peritoneal effluent and intermittent abdominal pain. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from blood cultures and peritoneal fluid cultures. The patient was treated with intravenous piperacillin-tazobactam and intraperitoneal cefepime. The PD catheter was not removed or exchanged. A repeat blood culture on the third hospital day was negative. His hospital course was complicated by cardiogenic shock, atrial fibrillation, and gastrointestinal bleeding, and his goals of care changed to focus on comfort measures. This case report and literature review provide a resource for healthcare providers who may encounter this infection in the future. This case also serves as a reminder of the challenges of PD in patients at risk of acquired zoonotic infections from their pets. Based on the reviewed three cases of Pasteurella multocida bacteremia associated with PD-related peritonitis, blood cultures may be a prudent option for patients presenting with peritoneal dialysis associated peritonitis to ensure that concurrent bacteremia is not overlooked.