Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients are living longer due to the availability of antiretroviral therapies, and non-AIDS-defining cancers are becoming more prevalent in this patient population. A paucity of data remains on post-operative outcomes following resection of non-AIDS-defining cancers in the HIV population.
The National Inpatient Sample was utilized to identify patients who underwent surgical resection for malignancy from 2005 to 2015 (HIV, N = 52,742; non-HIV, N = 11,885,184). Complications were categorized by international classification of disease (ICD)-9 diagnosis codes. Cohorts were matched on insurance, household income, zip code and urban/rural setting. Logistic regression assessed whether HIV was an independent predictor of post-operative complications.
Descriptive statistics found HIV patients to have an increased rate of complications following select oncologic surgical resections. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression found HIV to only be an independent predictor of complications following pulmonary lobectomy (p = 0.011; OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.29-6.73). Length of stay was statistically longer following colectomy (2.61 days, 95% CI 1.98-3.44) in those with HIV.
Our findings are hypothesis generating and highlight the potential safety of major cancer surgery in the HIV population. However, care providers need be cognizant of the potential increased risk of post-operative complications following pulmonary lobectomy and the potential for increased length of stay. These findings are an initial insight into quality of care and outcomes metrics on HIV patients undergoing major cancer operations.