Osteomyelitis: Recent advances in pathophysiology and therapeutic strategies

This review article summarizes the recent advances in pathogenic mechanisms and novel therapeutic strategies for osteomyelitis, covering both periprosthetic joint infections and fracture-associated bone infections. A better understanding of the pathophysiology including the mechanisms for biofilm formation has led to new therapeutic strategies for this devastating disease. Research on novel local delivery materials with appropriate mechanical properties, lower exothermicity, controlled release of antibiotics, and absorbable scaffolding for bone regeneration is progressing rapidly. Emerging strategies for prevention, early diagnosis of low-grade infections, and innovative treatments of osteomyelitis such as biofilm disruptors and immunotherapy are highlighted in this review.