Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2022 Jun 3. doi: 10.1007/s00167-022-07019-x. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE: This study aims to (1) measure the kinematics of lower extremity alignment and the bony position relative to the ground during walking, focusing on the coronal plane, and (2) determine the correlation between the kinematics and coronal inclination of the medial tibial plateau (coronal inclination) for healthy and varus knee osteoarthritis (OA).
METHODS: In this study, 43 women (non-OA, 9 knees; early OA, 13 knees; advanced OA, 21 knees; mean age 58 ± 17 years) were examined. The knee phenotypes in varus knee OA were varied. Three-dimensional (3D) knee kinematics were calculated in gait analysis by combining the motion capture system and the 3D lower extremity alignment assessment system via biplanar long-leg X-rays, applying the 3D-2D registration technique. The main parameters were the kinematics of the bony axes relative to the ground in the coronal plane during the stance phase of the gait. The differences in overall kinematics were assessed using repeated measures ANOVA with Tukey’s post hoc test. The association between kinematic parameters and coronal inclination was evaluated by multiple linear regression after univariate analysis.
RESULTS: The tibia tilted laterally during the loading response, and a plateau area subsequently appeared until the terminal stance phase, whereas the femur slowly tilted laterally until the terminal stance phase. The dynamic alignment showed a relatively large varus angular change during the loading response in all groups. The trend of motion was similar among all groups (p = n.s.), although to varying degrees. The coronal inclination was the more dominant factor than the Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grades (β = – 0.423, p = 0.005) when the change in dynamic alignment was determined.
CONCLUSIONS: The TAA plateau area after the loading response implies that the tibial articular surface may become horizontal. The femur slowly tilted laterally until the terminal stance phase in response to the tibial motion. Consequently, the dynamic alignment showed a varus angular change, in which coronal MCT was more involved than K-L grades.