In minimally invasive surgery, there are several challenges for training novice surgeons, such as limited field-of-view and unintuitive hand-eye coordination due to performing the operation according to video feedback. Virtual Reality (VR) surgical simulators are a novel, risk-free, and cost-effective way to train and assess surgeons.
We developed VR-based simulations to accurately assess and quantify performance of two VR simulations: gentleness simulation for laparoscopy and rotator cuff repair for arthroscopy. We performed content and construct validity studies for the simulators. In our analysis, we systematically rank surgeons using data mining classification techniques.
Using classification algorithms such as K-Nearest Neighbors, Support Vector Machines, and Logistic Regression we have achieved near 100% accuracy rate in identifying novices, and up to an 83% accuracy rate identifying experts. Sensitivity and specificity were up to 1.0 and 0.9, respectively.
Developed methodology to measure and differentiate the highly ranked surgeons and less-skilled surgeons. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.