Postoperative Outcomes Following Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty in Patients with Pain Catastrophizing, Anxiety, or Depression

Background: The relationship among pain catastrophizing, emotional disorders, and total joint arthroplasty (TJA) outcomes is an emerging area of study. The purpose of this study is to examine the association of these factors with 1-year postoperative pain and functional outcomes.

Methods: A prospective cohort study of preoperative TJA patients using the Pain Catastrophizing Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A/HADS-D) was conducted. Postoperative outcomes included Visual Analog Scale (VAS) pain, Oxford, Harris Hip (HHS) and Knee Society (KSS) scores. Median regression was used to assess the pattern of relationship among preoperative clinically relevant catastrophizing (CRC) pain, abnormal HADS, and 1-year postoperative outcomes.

Results: We recruited 463 TJA patients, all of which completed 1-year follow-up. At 1 year, CRC-rumination (adjusted median difference 1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.31-1.69, P = .005) and abnormal HADS-A (adjusted median difference 1; 95% CI 0.36-1.64, P = .002) were predictors of VAS pain, CRC magnification a predictor of HHS/KSS (adjusted median difference 1.3; 95% CI 5.23-0.11, P = .041), and abnormal HADS-A a predictor of Oxford (adjusted median difference 3.68; 95% CI 1.38-5.99, P = .002). CRC patients demonstrated inferior VAS pain (P = .001), Oxford (P < .0001), and HHS/KSS (P = .025). Abnormal HADS patients demonstrated inferior postoperative VAS (HADS-A, P = .025; HADS-D, P = .030) and Oxford (HADS-A, P = .001; HADS-D, P = .030). However, patients with CRC experienced significant improvement in VAS, Oxford, and HHS/KSS (P < .05) from preoperative to 1 year. Similarly, patients with abnormal HADS showed significant improvement in VAS pain and HHS/KSS (P < .05).

Conclusion: TJA patients who are anxious, depressed, or pain catastrophizing have inferior preoperative and postoperative pain and function. However, as compared to their preoperative status, clinically significant improvement can be expected following hip/knee arthroplasty.

Keywords: anxiety; depression; outcomes; pain catastrophizing; preoperative; total joint replacement.