Pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) is highly effective as a sagittal correction approach in patients with adult spinal deformity, but relevant issues such as surgical complexity and long-term complications limit its applicability. Recently, minimally invasive techniques have been reported to be useful for surgical treatment of adult spinal deformity; however, few reports have directly compared these techniques with PSO.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiological and clinical efficacies of oblique lateral interbody fusion (OLIF) with posterior column osteotomy (PCO) using stiff rods (6.35-mm cobalt chrome [CoCr]).
Retrospective comparative study.
One-hundred six patients (average age 71.3 years) diagnosed with adult spinal deformity presenting with sagittal imbalance for whom follow-up of over 2 years after sagittal correction (between 2013 and 2017) was available.
Description and analysis of X-ray, computed tomography (CT) scans, operative time, estimated blood loss, and clinical outcomes (Oswestry Disability Index [ODI] and Visual Analog Scale [VAS]).
A comparative analysis was performed evaluating spinopelvic parameters and clinical outcomes including the ODI, VAS, and complications in patients who underwent PSO (PSO group; n=65) or multilevel pre-psoas OLIF combined with PCO and open posterior spinal fusion using 6.35-mm CoCr rods (OLIF group; n=41). The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.
There were no differences in preoperative spinopelvic parameters between the PSO and OLIF groups. Although no differences were observed between the two groups in terms of postoperative SVA (-12.66 mm vs. -16.44 mm), postoperative lumbar lordosis (-71.46° vs. -72.55°), lumbar lordosis correction (77.96° vs 73.54°), or postoperative pelvic tilt (9.35° vs 7.17°), the estimated blood loss was significantly lower in the OLIF group (2824 mL vs. 1736 mL, p <.05). No differences were observed in clinical outcomes (ODI, VAS, and clinical complications), proximal junctional kyphosis, and spinopelvic parameters between the two groups 2 years after surgery. However, pseudarthrosis during the follow-up period, including rod fracture, occurred less frequently in the OLIF group compared to that in the PSO group (p <.05). OLIF was performed from the T12-L1 to L5-S1 regions (124 segments), with an average of 3 segments per patient. The CT scans immediately after surgery showed an average segmental correction of -18° and 12.9% (16 segments) of 124 segments showed a correction angle of >30°.
Multilevel OLIF with PCO using a stiff rod to treat severe sagittal imbalance resulted in similar levels of sagittal balance and lordosis correction as obtained by PSO. Multilevel OLIF with PCO using a stiff rod can be an effective alternative to PSO for patients with severe sagittal imbalance.