Is hip arthroscopy useful in the treatment of borderline dysplasia?: a case-control study

Introduction: Since arthroscopy remains a controversial treatment of hip dysplasia, our objective was to analyse its clinical and radiological results in a cohort of patients with dysplasia and compare them to controls with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI).

Material and methods: We retrospectively analysed a series of patients who underwent hip arthroscopy for the treatment of labral pathology; 29 of them with borderline hip dysplasia and 197 with FAI, comparing reoperations and joint survival. The diagnosis of borderline dysplasia was made with a lateral centre-edge angle greater than 18° but less than 25°. The average follow-up was 43 months. We performed a multivariate regression analysis to evaluate the association of reoperations with different demographic, radiological and intraoperative variables.

Results: Seven complications were registered in the FAI group (1 medically treated superficial wound infection, 3 pudendal nerve paraesthesias, 1 deep vein thrombosis and 2 heterotopic ossifications) and none in the dysplasia group. While 5 patients from the FAI group required a new surgery, none of the dysplasia group was re-operated (p=.38). After adjusting for confounders, reoperation showed a very strong association with the finding of osteochondral lesions during index surgery, with a coefficient of .12 (p<.001, 95%CI=.06-.17).

Conclusion: Hip arthroscopy was useful in the treatment of borderline dysplasia, without non-inferior survival compared to the FAI group. We suggest indicating it carefully in dysplasia cases, whenever the symptoms of femoroacetabular friction prevail over those of instability.

Keywords: Artroscopia de cadera; Borderline hip dysplasia; Choque femoroacetabular; Displasia de cadera; Displasia limítrofe de cadera; Femoroacetabular impingement; Hip arthroscopy; Hip dysplasia.