To scope the scientific literature and analyze the influence of bony risk factors for degenerative full-thickness primary rotator cuff tear.
A systematic review of databases PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library was performed up to June 30, 2018. Meta-analysis was performed with mean difference (MD) or risk ratio for degenerative full-thickness rotator cuff injury, and when there were ≥3 studies for the considered potential risk factor. Methodologic quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale.
We analyzed 34 studies comprising 5,916 shoulders (3,369 shoulders with rotator cuff tear and 2,546 controls) and identified 19 potential risk factors for degenerative full-thickness rotator cuff tears. There was moderate evidence that a higher critical shoulder angle (MD = 4.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.43 to 5.39), higher acromion index (MD = 0.06, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.09), and lower lateral acromion angles (MD = -7.11, 95% CI -8.32 to -5.90) were associated with degenerative full-thickness rotator cuff tears compared with controls. Moderate evidence showed that a type III acromion significantly increases the risk for full-thickness degenerative rotator cuff tear (risk ratio = 2.26, 95% CI 1.38 to 3.70).
There is moderate evidence that larger critical shoulder angle, higher acromion index, lower lateral acromion angles, and a type III acromion are significantly associated with degenerative full-thickness rotator cuff tears. Other potential risk factors identified showed insufficient evidence.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:
Level IV, systematic review of level II to IV studies.