Hip and knee arthroplasties are among the most commonly performed surgical procedures in the elderly. In this age group, uncertainty exists regarding the importance of mild to moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD), which is prevalent but often unrecognized in the perioperative setting. This study evaluates the association between mild to moderate CKD and adverse postoperative outcomes in patients 65 years or older METHODS: This retrospective study selected patients 65 years or older undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty between 2006 and 2016 from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. We created logistic regression models to analyze the relationship between CKD stage and each of our coprimary outcomes. The primary outcomes were major complication and mortality occurring within 30 days of surgery.
Of the 193,747 included patients, 68,424 (35.3%) underwent hip and 125,323 (64.7%) knee arthroplasty. Within 30 days of surgery, 12,767 patients (6.6%) experienced a major complication and 352 (0.2%) died. Compared to patients with no kidney disease, patients with CKD stages 3b and 4 were at higher risk for both major complication (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.28 [1.08-1.52], aOR 1.5 [1.13-1.98], respectively) and mortality (aOR 3.17 [1.23-8.14], aOR 3.93 [1.26-12.21], respectively) after hip arthroplasty, and for major complication (aOR 1.42 [1.23-1.63], aOR 1.52 [1.19-1.93], respectively) after knee arthroplasty.
Among elderly patients, stage 3b and stage 4 CKD were associated with 30-day postoperative major complication after hip or knee arthroplasty, and with 30-day postoperative mortality after hip, but not knee, arthroplasty. Further research will be required to inform perioperative management decisions.