Factors leading to postoperative pain in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients including sagittal alignment and lumbar disc degeneration

Purpose

This study examined for factors contributing to postoperative pain in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), including those of sagittal alignment and lumbar disc degeneration.

Methods

A total of 101 consecutive patients who underwent posterior spinal fusion for AIS and who were followed for a minimum of 2 years were included in this investigation. We assessed Lenke curve type, age, Risser grade, body mass index (BMI), radiographic parameters, lumbar disc degeneration, correction rate, number of fused vertebrae, lowest instrumented vertebra, preoperative SRS-22r survey mental health score, and pre- and postoperative SRS-22r survey pain scores. Univariate and multivariate general linear models were employed to identify factors associated with pain 2 years after AIS surgery.

Results

In multivariate analysis, patients with a lower preoperative pain score (i.e. higher pain) (P < 0.01) or higher postoperative T5-12 kyphotic angle (P = 0.02) had a worsened pain score 2 years after surgery. There were no remarkable differences for Lenke curve type, age, BMI, coronal radiographic parameters, lumbar disc degeneration, correction rate, number of fused vertebrae, or lowest instrumented vertebra. Higher preoperative Risser grade (P = 0.01) and lower preoperative SRS-22r mental health score (P < 0.01) were significantly related to a diminished preoperative SRS-22r pain score.

Conclusion

While preoperative lumbar disc degeneration was not associated with pre- or postoperative pain in AIS, higher preoperative pain and higher postoperative T5-12 kyphotic angle had significant associations with augmented postoperative pain. Higher preoperative pain was related to increased Risser grade and lower mental health score.