Common Elements in Surgical Site Infection Care Bundles for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis at North American Pediatric Institutions

Background: 

Surgical site infection (SSI) following posterior spinal fusion for idiopathic scoliosis is a difficult complication, with little information published regarding the best preventative comprehensive care plan. The Spine Subgroup of the Quality, Safety, Value Initiative (QSVI) committee of the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America undertook a survey to generate an overview of bundle elements in comprehensive SSI care bundlesacross institutions in North America. The purpose of this study was to develop a toolkit of SSI care bundle elements that could be used in developing future SSI care bundles.

Methods: 

A survey email was sent to pediatric orthopaedic surgeons requesting a copy of the SSI prevention care bundle used in their practice. Surgeons were included if they had participated in the 2016 POSNA QSVI challenge, indicated they performed pediatric spine surgery, and had a spine SSI bundle. These bundles were evaluated by the QSVI committee and divided into preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative elements with the frequency of use of each element recorded. A follow-up qualitative questionnaire was sent assessing the implementation and development of these SSI bundles.

Results: 

In total, 16 care bundles from 15 different institutions were included for review. The response rate for this survey was 44% of individuals (50/113 QSVI challenge participants) and 43% (15/35) of unique institutions. The most common elements included: use of preoperative antibiotics, use of preoperative chlorhexidine wipes, use of wound irrigation intraoperatively, and a standardized prescription for the length of postoperative antibiotic. Each of these elements was included in ≥75% of the SSI bundles evaluated.

Conclusions: 

SSI care bundles are increasingly being used by pediatric institutions to lower the risk of SSI following pediatric spinal surgery. This study provides an overview of various care elements used in established SSI care bundles across multiple institutions in North America. It is hoped this data will provide institutions interested in developing their own SSI care bundle with useful information for beginning this process.

Level of Evidence: Level V—Decision Analysis.