Background: The purpose of this study was to present a navigated image-free augmentation technique for the acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) and coracoclavicular (CC) ligaments and to report the clinical and radiological outcomes.
Methods: From 2013 to 2018, 35 eligible patients were treated with our navigated image-free ACJ- and CC-augmentation technique. The average follow-up was 3 years. Follow-up evaluations included the Constant-Murley Score, subjective shoulder value, Taft score, and the acromioclavicular joint instability (ACJI) score. The patients’ quality of life was assessed using the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) questionnaire. In addition, in accordance with the instability criteria, radiographs were evaluated before surgery, after surgery, and during follow-up.
Results: Overall, 25 patients (71%) suffered an acute type V disruption, 5 (14%) had a type IV disruption, and 5 (14%) had an acute Rockwood type IIIb injury. The mean Constant-Murley Score was 90 (range: 56-100; p = 0.53) on the injured side, and the mean subjective shoulder value was 92% (range: 80-100%). The mean Taft and ACJI scores were 10 (range: 4-12) and 86 (range: 34-100), respectively and the mean EQ-5D was 86 (range: 2-100). The mean CC difference of the injured side was 4 mm (range: 1.9-9.1 mm) at follow-up, which was not significantly different than that of the healthy side (p = 0.06). No fractures in the area of the clavicle or the coracoid were reported.
Conclusions: The arthroscopic- and navigation-assisted treatment of high-grade ACJ injuries in an anatomical double-tunnel configuration yields similar clinical and radiological outcomes as the conventional technique using an aiming device. Precise positioning of the navigation system prevents multiple drillings, which avoids fractures.
Keywords: Acromioclavicular joint; Articular ligaments; Clavicle; Joint stability; Shoulder.