This article was originally published here
J Orthop Surg Res. 2022 May 14;17(1):267. doi: 10.1186/s13018-022-03094-5.
OBJECTIVE: To construct a comprehensive simulation method of “gait-musculoskeletal system (MS)-finite element (FE)” for analysis of hip joint dynamics characteristics and the changes in the contact stress in the hip throughout a gait cycle.
METHODS: Two healthy volunteers (male and female) were recruited. The 3D gait trajectories during normal walking and the CT images including the hip and femur of the volunteers were obtained. CT imaging data in the DICOM format were extracted for subjected 3D hip joint reconstruction. The reconstructed 3D model files were used to realize the subject-specific registration of the pelvis and thigh segment of general musculoskeletal model. The captured marker trajectory data were used to drive subject-specific musculoskeletal model to complete inverse dynamic analysis. Results of inverse dynamic analysis were exported and applied as boundary and load settings of the hip joint finite element in ABAQUS. Finally, the finite element analysis (FEA) was performed to analyze contact stress of hip joint during a gait cycle of left foot.
RESULTS: In the inverse dynamic analysis, the dynamic changes of the main hip-femoral muscle force with respect to each phase of a single gait cycle were plotted. The hip joint reaction force reached a maximum value of 2.9%BW (body weight) and appeared at the end of the terminal stance phase. Twin peaks appeared at the initial contact phase and the end of the terminal stance phase, respectively. FEA showed the temporal changes in contact stress in the acetabulum. In the visual stress cloud chart, the acetabular contact stress was mainly distributed in the dome of the acetabulum and in the anterolateral area at the top of the femoral head during a single gait cycle. The acetabular contact area was between 293.8 and 998.4 mm2, and the maximum contact area appear at the mid-stance phase or the loading response phase of gait. The maximum contact stress of the acetabulum reached 6.91 MPa for the model 1 and 6.92 MPa for the model 2 at the terminal stance phase.
CONCLUSIONS: The “Gait-MS-FE” technology is integrated to construct a comprehensive simulation framework. Based on human gait trajectories and their CT images, individualized simulation modeling can be achieved. Subject-specific gait in combination with an inverse dynamic analysis of the MS provides pre-processing parameters for FE simulation for more accurate biomechanical analysis of hip joint.