Background context: Adult spinal deformity patients treated operatively by long-segment instrumented spinal fusion are prone to develop proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) and failure (PJF). A gradual transition in range of motion (ROM) at the proximal end of spinal instrumentation may reduce the incidence of PJK and PJF, however previously evaluated techniques have not directly been compared.
Purpose: To determine the biomechanical characteristics of five different posterior spinal instrumentation techniques to achieve semi-rigid junctional fixation, or “topping-off”, between the rigid pedicle screw fixation (PSF) and the proximal uninstrumented spine.
Study design: Biomechanical cadaveric study METHODS: Seven fresh-frozen human cadaveric spine segments (T8-L3) were subjected to ex vivo pure moment loading in flexion-extension, lateral bending and axial rotation up to 5Nm. The native condition, three-level PSF (T11-L2), PSF with supplemental transverse process hooks at T10 (TPH), and two sublaminar taping techniques (knotted and clamped) as one- (T10) or two-level (T9, T10) semi-rigid junctional fixation techniques were compared. The ROM and neutral zone (NZ) of the segments were normalized to the native condition. The linearity of the transition zones over three or four segments was determined through linear regression analysis.
Results: All techniques achieved a significantly reduced ROM at T10-T11 in flexion-extension and axial rotation relative to the PSF condition. Additionally, both two-level sublaminar taping techniques (CT2, KT2) had a significantly reduced ROM at T9-T10. One-level clamped sublaminar tape (CT1) had a significantly lower ROM and NZ compared to one-level knotted sublaminar tape (KT1) at T10-T11. Linear regression analysis showed the highest linear correlation between ROM and vertebral level for TPH and the lowest linear correlation for CT2.
Conclusion: All studied semi-rigid junctional fixation techniques significantly reduced the ROM at the junctional levels and thus provide a more gradual transition than pedicle screws. TPH achieves the most linear transition over three vertebrae, whereas KT2 achieves that over four vertebrae. In contrast, CT2 effectively is a one-level semi-rigid junctional fixation technique with a shift in the upper rigid fixation level. Clamped sublaminar tape reduces the NZ greatly, whereas knotted sublaminar tape and TPH maintain a more physiologic NZ. Clinical validation is ultimately required to translate the biomechanics of various semi-rigid junctional fixation techniques into the clinical goal of reducing the incidence of proximal junctional kyphosis and failure.
Clinical significance: The direct biomechanical comparison of multiple instrumentation techniques that aim to reduce the incidence of PJK after thoracolumbar spinal fusion surgery provides a basis upon which clinical studies could be designed. Furthermore, the data provided in this study can be used to further analyze the biomechanical effects of the studied techniques using finite element models to better predict their post-operative effectiveness.
Keywords: Adult spinal deformity; Biomechanics; Proximal junctional failure; Semi-rigid; Topping-off; proximal junctional kyphosis.