Association of global sagittal spinal deformity with functional disability two years after total hip arthroplasty

Background: The relationship between spinopelvic alignment and functional disability after total hip arthroplasty (THA) has not been fully elucidated despite the growing recognition of its importance on patient-reported outcome measures. Therefore, our aim was to assess the effect of global sagittal spinal deformity on post-operative disability.

Methods: This analysis was based on 208 cases of THA, with functional disability measured at a follow-up of 2 years. The Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score-Joint Replacement (HOOS-JR), ranging from a scale of 0 (complete joint disability) to 100 (perfect joint health), was used to divide eligible patients into two groups, namely with and without disability, using a score of 70 as the cut-off. The following factors were compared between the two groups using multivariate analysis: age, sex, body height, body mass index, spinopelvic parameters, and surgeon experience. To identify the cut-off value of the parameters for predicting disability (HOOS-JR < 70/100), we used the receiver-operating characteristic curve.

Results: The disability (30 hips) and control (178 hips) groups showed a significant difference in pre-operative body height (p = 0.020), T1 pelvic angle divided by pelvic incidence (T1PA/PI; p = 0.018), PI minus lumbar lordosis (p = 0.027), post-operative HOOS-JR (p = 0.010), patient satisfaction (p = 0.033), and the modified Harris Hip Score (p = 0.038). On multivariate analysis, the following factors were associated with persistent disability: T1PA/PI > 0.2 (odds ratio [OR], 2.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-4.14; p < 0.001) and height < 148 cm equivalent to legal standards as short stature (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.09-1.48; p = 0.011). The cut-off value of pre-operative T1PA/PI was > 0.19, with a sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 85%. Post-operative satisfaction (p < 0.001), HOOS-JR (p = 0.023), and EuroQol 5-Dimension (p = 0.041) differed between the two groups when the pre-operative cut-off value was chosen as 0.2.

Conclusions: A T1PA/PI > 0.2 was associated with greater disability after THA. Clinicians should be aware that patient-related factors, including global spinal deformities, particularly in patients with a short stature, can influence THA outcomes at 2 years postoperatively.

Keywords: Disability; Global sagittal deformity; Spinopelvic alignment; T1 pelvic angle, Total hip arthroplasty.