Evidence-based therapy that target hyperlipidemia, hypertension, smoking cessation, and weight loss have demonstrated significant benefits in reducing cardiovascular risks and related events. Although the benefit of intensively lowering blood glucose is unclear, newer antidiabetic drugs (glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors) have shown cardiovascular benefits in addition to their antihyperglycemic effect. Yet, studies suggest that recent use of evidence-based therapy and management of cardiovascular risk among individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains largely suboptimal. The following narrative review first identifies barriers to translating research evidence to clinical practice at the levels of provider, health system, patient, and cost. Then it synthesizes previous implementation strategies that addressed multifaceted barriers and attempted to improve care for patients with T2D and CVD. In conclusion, team-based care coordination, reminding systems in combination to pharmacist consultation and patient education, provider education compatible with clinical workflow, and coupled incentives between providers and patients appeared to be effective in reducing cardiovascular risks for patients with T2D and CVD, though the scalability and long-term clinical effect of these strategies as well as the possibility of interventions involving payers and health systems remain uncertain.
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