Cureus. 2022 Apr 25;14(4):e24475. doi: 10.7759/cureus.24475. eCollection 2022 Apr.
Neutropenic enterocolitis (NE) is a rare but severe complication occurring in neutropenic patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy. Mortality is high, so early diagnosis is required to start urgent medical or surgical treatment. Data analysis of the development of NE after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation remains scarce. The aim of this case series is to discuss five out of 100 patients receiving autologous stem cell transplants (ASCTs) for multiple myeloma complicated with NE between 2016 and 2020 in the hematology department of the Cheikh Khalifa International University Hospital, Casablanca, Morocco. The patients were diagnosed with IgA and IgG multiple myeloma and aged between 58 to 64 years. They received induction therapy with four cycles of a triplet regimen including a proteasome inhibitor, an immunomodulatory drug, and corticosteroids, allowing a complete remission. Intensification was based on ASCT with melphalan at 200 mg/m2. The period of aplasia was marked by the sudden appearance of NE, diagnosed based on clinical, biological, and imaging criteria. Treatment included antibiotherapy and supportive care. We report no complications in our cases, nor the need for surgical care. Therefore, we consider that early diagnosis and treatment allowed a good evolution in our case series. The management of NE must be multidisciplinary associating hematologists, gastroenterologists, radiologists, and biologists. More studies and trials are needed to establish specific diagnostic criteria and better treatment options.