Lifestyle Modifications and Nutritional Interventions in Aging-Associated Cognitive Decline and Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a type of incurable neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ; plaques) and tau hyperphosphorylation as neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the brain followed by neuronal death, cognitive decline, and memory loss. The high prevalence of AD in the developed world has become a major public health challenge associated with social and economic burdens on individuals and society. Due to there being limited options for early diagnosis and determining the exact pathophysiology of AD, finding effective therapeutic strategies has become a great challenge. Several possible risk factors associated with AD pathology have been identified; however, their roles are still inconclusive. Recent clinical trials of the drugs targeting Aβ and tau have failed to find a cure for the AD pathology. Therefore, effective preventive strategies should be followed to reduce the exponential increase in the prevalence of cognitive decline and dementia, especially AD.

Although the search for new therapeutic targets is a great challenge for the scientific community, the roles of lifestyle interventions and nutraceuticals in the prevention of many metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases are highly appreciated in the literature. In this article, we summarize the molecular mechanisms involved in AD pathology and the possible ameliorative action of lifestyle and nutritional interventions including diet, exercise, Calorie restriction (CR), and various bioactive compounds on cognitive decline and dementia. This article will provide insights into the role of non-pharmacologic interventions in the modulation of AD pathology, which may offer the benefit of improving quality of life by reducing cognitive decline and incident AD.