Testing Black-White disparities in biological aging in older adults in the United States: analysis of DNA-methylation and blood-chemistry methods

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Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Dec 1:kwab281. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab281. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Biological aging is a proposed mechanism through which social determinants drive health disparities. We conducted proof-of-concept testing of eight DNA-methylation and blood-chemistry quantifications of biological aging as mediators of disparities in healthspan between Black and White participants in the 2016 wave of the United States Health and Retirement Study (HRS; n=9005). We quantified biological aging from four DNA-methylation “clocks” (Horvath, Hannum, PhenoAge, and GrimAge), a DNA-methylation Pace of Aging (DunedinPoAm), and three blood-chemistry measures (PhenoAge, Klemera-Doubal method Biological Age, and homeostatic dysregulation). We quantified Black-White disparities in healthspan from cross-sectional and longitudinal data on physical-performance tests, self-reported activities of daily living (ADL) limitations and physician-diagnosed chronic diseases, self-rated health, and survival. DNA-methylation and blood-chemistry quantifications of biological aging were moderately correlated (Pearson-r range 0.1-0.4). GrimAge, DunedinPoAm and all three blood-chemistry measures were associated with healthspan characteristics (e.g. mortality effect-size range HR=1.71-2.32 per SD of biological aging) and showed evidence of more advanced/faster biological aging in Black compared with White participants (Cohen’s d=.4-.5). These measures accounted for 13-95% of Black-White differences in healthspan-related characteristics. Findings suggest that reducing disparities in biological aging can contribute to building health equity.

PMID:34850809 | DOI:10.1093/aje/kwab281