Biostatistics. 2022 Jun 3:kxac013. doi: 10.1093/biostatistics/kxac013. Online ahead of print.
Regional aggregates of health outcomes over delineated administrative units (e.g., states, counties, and zip codes), or areal units, are widely used by epidemiologists to map mortality or incidence rates and capture geographic variation. To capture health disparities over regions, we seek “difference boundaries” that separate neighboring regions with significantly different spatial effects. Matters are more challenging with multiple outcomes over each unit, where we capture dependence among diseases as well as across the areal units. Here, we address multivariate difference boundary detection for correlated diseases. We formulate the problem in terms of Bayesian pairwise multiple comparisons and seek the posterior probabilities of neighboring spatial effects being different. To achieve this, we endow the spatial random effects with a discrete probability law using a class of multivariate areally referenced Dirichlet process models that accommodate spatial and interdisease dependence. We evaluate our method through simulation studies and detect difference boundaries for multiple cancers using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program of the National Cancer Institute.