This article was originally published here
Ann Hematol. 2021 Feb 23. doi: 10.1007/s00277-021-04464-5. Online ahead of print.
The availability of alternative donor sources could allow elderly patients to receive allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We retrospectively evaluated the outcomes of single-unit cord blood transplantation (CBT) in 1577 patients aged ≥60 years with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in Japan between 2002 and 2017. In total, 990 (63%) patients were not in complete remission (CR) at the time of CBT. A myeloablative conditioning regimen (52%) and calcineurin inhibitor (CI) + mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)-based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis (45%) were more commonly used. With a median follow-up for survivors of 31 months, the probability of overall survival and the cumulative incidence of leukemia-related mortality at 3 years was 31% and 29%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality (NRM) at 100 days and 3 years were 24% and 41%, respectively. The cumulative incidences of grade II-IV and grade III-IV acute GVHD at 100 days and extensive chronic GVHD at 2 years were 44%, 16%, and 14%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment was 80% at 42 days. Results of multivariate analysis indicated that the following factors were significantly associated with higher overall mortality: performance status ≥1, hematopoietic cell transplantation-specific comorbidity index ≥3, adverse cytogenetics, extramedullary disease at diagnosis, and non-CR status at CBT. By contrast, female sex, HLA disparities ≥2, mycophenolate mofetil-based GVHD prophylaxis, and recent CBT were significantly associated with lower overall mortality. In conclusion, single CBT offers a curative option for AML patients aged ≥60 years with careful patient selection.