Salt-Sensitivity of Blood Pressure in Blacks and Women: A role of Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and ENaC

This article was originally published here

Antioxid Redox Signal. 2021 Sep 25. doi: 10.1089/ars.2021.0212. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

SIGNIFICANCE: Salt-sensitivity of blood pressure (SSBP) is an independent risk factor for mortality and morbidity due to cardiovascular disease, and disproportionately affects blacks and women. Several mechanisms have been proposed including exaggerated activation of sodium transporters in the kidney leading to salt retention and water. Recent advances: Recent studies have found that in addition to the renal epithelium, myeloid immune cells can sense sodium via the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC), which leads to activation of the NADPH oxidase enzyme complex, increased fatty acid oxidation, and production of isolevuglandins (IsoLGs). IsoLGs are immunogenic and contribute to salt-induced hypertension. In addition, aldosterone mediated activation of ENaC has been attributed to the increased SSBP in women. The goal of this review is to highlight mechanisms contributing to SSBP in blacks and women, including, but not limited to increased activation of ENaC, fatty acid oxidation, and inflammation.

CRITICAL ISSUES: A critical barrier to progress in management of SSBP is that its diagnosis is not feasible in the clinic and is limited to expensive and laborious research protocols, which makes it difficult to investigate. Yet without understanding the underlying mechanisms, this important risk factor remains without treatment.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS: Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms which contribute to differential blood pressure responses to dietary salt and find feasible diagnostic tools. This is extremely important and may go a long way in mitigating the racial and sex disparities in cardiovascular outcomes.

PMID:34569287 | DOI:10.1089/ars.2021.0212