Cancer Nurs. 2020 Sep 22. doi: 10.1097/NCC.0000000000000879. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Black women face cervical cancer disparities with higher rates of morbidity and mortality compared with White women. Identifying predictors of Papanicolaou (Pap) testing is a first step to decrease morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer, with barriers and self-efficacy being constructs that should be related to Pap testing adherence. Although barriers and self-efficacy scales have been developed, they have not been validated in Black women for Pap testing.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to modify and psychometrically test barriers and self-efficacy to Pap testing in a Black population.
INTERVENTION/METHODS: Data were collected from a minority health fair. Internal consistency reliability testing was conducted using item analysis and Cronbach’s α. Construct validity was assessed by exploratory factor analysis and logistic regression. Papanicolaou testing adherence was regressed on each scale (barriers and self-efficacy) while controlling for antecedents.
RESULTS: Data demonstrated 2 reliable scales: (1) barriers (Cronbach’s α = .79), item-total correlation = 0.479 to 0.628; and (2) self-efficacy (Cronbach’s α = .85), item-total correlation = 0.560 to 0.697. Exploratory factor analysis supported 2 unidimensional scales. The regression models supported a relationship between each scale and Pap testing adherence.
CONCLUSIONS: The data suggested barriers and self-efficacy scales were reliable and valid among Black women. Barriers and self-efficacy could be tailored in future interventions to increase Pap testing adherence.
IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Nurses could use responses to these scales for framing discussions about Pap testing.