This article was originally published here
Am J Cancer Res. 2021 Apr 15;11(4):1012-1030. eCollection 2021.
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the leading causes of deaths in men globally. This is a heterogeneous and complex disease that urgently warrants further insight into its pathology. Developed countries have thus far the highest PCa incidence rates, with comparatively low mortality rates. Even though PCa in the Asian population seems to have high incidence and mortality rates, the African countries are emerging as the focal center for this disease. It has also been reported that the Sub-Saharan (SSA) countries have both the highest incidence and mortality rates. To date, few studies have reported the link between PCa and African populations. Adequate evidence is still missing to fully comprehend this relationship. While it has been brought to attention that racial, geographical and socioeconomic status are contributing factors, men of African descent across the globe, irrespective of their geographical position have higher PCa incidence and mortality rates compared to their white counterparts. To date, hormone therapy is the mainstay treatment of PCa, while the dysregulation of androgen receptor (AR) signaling is a hallmark of PCa. One of the emerging problems with this therapeutic approach is resistance to antiandrogens, and that AR splice isoforms implicated in the progression of PCa lack the therapeutic ligand-binding domain (LBD) target. AR splice variants targeted therapy is emerging and in clinical trials. Leveraging PCa transcriptomics is key towards PCa precision medicine. The aim of this review is to outline the PCa epidemiology globally and in Africa, PCa associated risk factors, discuss AR signaling and PCa mechanisms, the role of dysregulated splicing in PCa as novel prognostic indicators and therapeutic targets.