This article was originally published here
Breast J. 2021 Oct 15. doi: 10.1111/tbj.14297. Online ahead of print.
Most adequately powered studies confirm a worse prognosis for males versus matched females with breast cancer. There is in-stage migration for stage I cancers with a different ratio of tumor/normal breast tissue in males. Younger men have a better prognosis, largely the result of increased morbidity in the elderly, exacerbated by smoking, low socioeconomic differences, and ethnic disparity. BRCA2 carriers with MBC have a worse outcome than noncarriers as do men with amplification of EMSY. Men with tumors having a high cytosol level of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) may have more invasive cancers leading to earlier spread and hence a worse outcome. PREDICT+ is a useful prognostic model for MBC and multigene testing enables more specific systemic therapies to be used.