Am J Med Genet A. 2020 Oct 24. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.61930. Online ahead of print.
Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I)/Hurler syndrome newborn screening was added to the recommended uniform screening panel (RUSP) in 2016. As states have added screening for MPS I, programs have reported increased rates of false positives. Reasons for false positive screens include carrier status, true false positive, late-onset/attenuated forms, and in about half of cases, pseudodeficiency alleles. These alleles have DNA variants that can cause falsely decreased enzyme activity on biochemical enzyme studies and have increased frequency in individuals of African American and African descent. We describe the District of Columbia (DC) experience with MPS I screening from December 2017 to February 2019. In the context of a review of the literature on newborn screening and family experiences and this DC-based experience, we offer potential solutions to address preliminary concerns regarding this screening. The impact of overrepresentation of screen positives in a minority group and unintentional creation of health disparities and community wariness regarding medical genetics evaluations must be considered to improve the newborn screen programs nationally and internationally.