Evaluation of Disparities in Adults' Macronutrient Intake Status: Results from the China Health and Nutrition 2011 Survey

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Nutrients. 2021 Aug 30;13(9):3044. doi: 10.3390/nu13093044.

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the macronutrient intake status of adult Chinese people. This cross-sectional study assessed the macronutrient intake status of adults (aged ≥20 years) by comparing their intake level of macronutrients against the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). It further explored the associations between macronutrient intake status and age groups, genders, education levels, smoking status, drinking frequency, social classes, knowledge of Chinese Dietary Guidelines 2016 (CDGs), healthy diet priorities, and areas (urban and rural) within two regions (northern and southern). The analysis includes the dietary intake data of 7860 Chinese adults, with complete data entries in the China Health and Nutrition 2011 survey. Dietary data were obtained through the 24 h recall method. More than half had carbohydrate intake below the recommended level of intake, and more than half had fat intake above the recommended level of intake. There were significant associations between three macronutrient intakes and education levels, social classes, healthy diet priorities, areas, and regions. Disparities in macronutrient consumptions revealed geographical and socioeconomic variations in dietary patterns, as well as risks for many different noncommunicable diseases. Public health and nutrition interventions should take notice of regional differences in dietary intake and place more emphasis on vulnerable populations including women, rural residents, and people with lower education level.

PMID:34578923 | DOI:10.3390/nu13093044