This article was originally published here
JCO Oncol Pract. 2021 Feb 25:OP2000839. doi: 10.1200/OP.20.00839. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE: We assessed sociodemographic factors associated with and survival implications of refusal of potentially survival-prolonging locoregional treatment (LT, including radiotherapy and surgery) despite provider recommendation among men with localized prostate adenocarcinoma.
METHODS: The National Cancer Database (2004-2015) identified men with TxN0M0 prostate cancer who either received or refused LT despite provider recommendation. Multivariable logistic regression defined adjusted odds ratios (AORs) with 95% CI of refusing LT, with sociodemographic and clinical covariates. Models were stratified by low-risk and intermediate- or high-risk (IR or HR) disease, with a separate interaction analysis between race and risk group. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard ratios compared overall survival (OS) among men who received versus refused LT.
RESULTS: Of 887,839 men (median age 64 years, median follow-up 6.14 years), 2,487 (0.28%) refused LT. Among men with IR or HR disease (n = 651,345), Black and Asian patients were more likely to refuse LT than White patients (0.35% v 0.29% v 0.17%; Black v White AOR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.52 to 2.01; P < .001; Asian v White AOR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.05 to 2.06; P = .027, race * risk group interaction P < .001). Later year of diagnosis, community facility type, noninsurance or Medicaid, and older age were also associated with increased odds of LT refusal, overall and when stratifying by risk group. For men with IR or HR disease, LT refusal was associated with worse OS (5-year OS 80.1% v 91.5%, HR, 1.65, P < .001).
CONCLUSION: LT refusal has increased over time; racial disparities were greater in higher-risk disease. Refusal despite provider recommendation highlights populations that may benefit from efforts to assess and reduce barriers to care.