This article was originally published here
Oncotarget. 2020 Dec 29;11(52):4788-4802. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.27856. eCollection 2020 Dec 29.
Metastatic melanoma is the most deadly skin neoplasm in the United States. Outcomes for this lethal disease have improved dramatically due to the use of both targeted and immunostimulatory drugs. Immunogenic cell death (ICD) has emerged as another approach for initiating antitumor immunity. ICD is triggered by tumor cells that display damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). These DAMP molecules recruit and activate dendritic cells (DCs) that present tumor-specific antigens to T cells which eliminate neoplastic cells. Interestingly, the expression of DAMP molecules occurs in an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-dependent manner. We have previously shown that ER stress was required for the cytotoxic activity of the endocannabinoid metabolite, 15-deoxy, Δ12,14 prostamide J2 (15dPMJ2). As such, the current study investigates whether 15dPMJ2 induces DAMP signaling in melanoma. In B16F10 cells, 15dPMJ2 caused a significant increase in the cell surface expression of calreticulin (CRT), the release of ATP and the secretion of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), three molecules that serve as surrogate markers of ICD. 15dPMJ2 also stimulated the cell surface expression of the DAMP molecules, heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and Hsp90. In addition, the display of CRT and ATP was increased by 15dPMJ2 to a greater extent in tumorigenic compared to non-tumorigenic melanocytes. Consistent with this finding, the activation of bone marrow-derived DCs was upregulated in co-cultures with 15dPMJ2-treated tumor compared to non-tumor melanocytes. Moreover, 15dPMJ2-mediated DAMP exposure and DC activation required the electrophilic cyclopentenone double bond within the structure of 15dPMJ2 and the ER stress pathway. These results demonstrate that 15dPMJ2 is a tumor-selective inducer of DAMP signaling in melanoma.