Ethn Health. 2020 Oct 15:1-11. doi: 10.1080/13557858.2020.1830036. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate how racial/ethnic density and residential segregation shape the uneven burden of COVID-19 in US counties and whether (if yes, how) residential segregation moderates the association between racial/ethnic density and infections.
DESIGN: We first merge various risk factors from federal agencies (e.g. Census Bureau and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) with COVID-19 cases as of June 13th in contiguous US counties (N = 3,042). We then apply negative binomial regression to the county-level dataset to test three interrelated research hypotheses and the moderating role of residential segregation is presented with a figure.
RESULTS: Several key results are obtained. (1) Counties with high racial/ethnic density of minority groups experience more confirmed cases than those with low levels of density. (2) High levels of residential segregation between whites and non-whites increase the number of COVID-19 infections in a county, net of other risk factors. (3) The relationship between racial/ethnic density and COVID-19 infections is enhanced with the increase in residential segregation between whites and non-whites in a county.
CONCLUSIONS: The pre-existing social structure like residential segregation may facilitate the spread of COVID-19 and aggravate racial/ethnic health disparities in infections. Minorities are disproportionately affected by the novel coronavirus and focusing on pre-existing social structures and discrimination in housing market may narrow the uneven burden across racial/ethnic groups.