Associations between Perceived Racial Discrimination and Tobacco Cessation among Diverse Treatment Seekers

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Ethn Dis. 2020 Jul 9;30(3):411-420. doi: 10.18865/ed.30.3.411. eCollection 2020 Summer.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated a) racial/ethnic differences in past-year discrimination experiences and b) associations between discrimination and smoking abstinence.

DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal analysis of smoking status. Perceived past-year discrimination was assessed at baseline. ANCOVAs and intent-to-treat hierarchical logistic regressions were conducted.

SETTING: Dual-site (Tampa, FL and Miami, FL) randomized controlled trial testing the effects of a group cessation intervention plus pharmacotherapy.

PARTICIPANTS: Treatment-seeking adult smokers (N=347; non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic African American/Black, or Hispanic).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Biochemically verified 7-day point prevalence abstinence (7-day ppa) was assessed immediately post-intervention and at 6-month follow-up.

RESULTS: After controlling for covariates, African Americans/Blacks reported greater perceived discrimination compared with non-Hispanic Whites (P=.02), and Hispanics (P=.06). Non-Hispanic Whites and Hispanics did not differ in perceived racial/ethnic discrimination experiences over the past year. Irrespective of race/ethnicity, past-year perceived discrimination was inversely associated with 7-day ppa, both post-intervention (AOR=.97, CI: .95-.99) and at 6-months (AOR=.98, CI: .96-.99). Among African Americans/Blacks, past-year perceived discrimination was inversely associated with 7-day ppa, both post-intervention (AOR=.95, CI: .92-.97) and at 6-months (AOR=.97, CI: .94-.99). Perceived discrimination was unrelated to 7-day ppa among Hispanics. Among non-Hispanic Whites, past-year perceived discrimination was inversely associated with post-intervention 7-day ppa (AOR=.95, CI: .91-.99), but not 6-months.

CONCLUSIONS: Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination was greater among African American/Black smokers compared with non-Hispanic Whites. Perceived discrimination was negatively associated with tobacco cessation in the full sample, and for African Americans at 6-months post-intervention. These data have implications for intervention delivery and health disparities.

PMID:32742143 | PMC:PMC7360180 | DOI:10.18865/ed.30.3.411