Many patients who are candidates for a pacemaker are also at the same time risk factors for coronary artery disease such as high blood pressure, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia, and therefore the probability of having coronary artery disease is significant. Effective diagnostic measures can be taken to prove the factors affecting the incidence of CAD in patients undergoing pacemakers at high-risk, including angiography. Therefore, it can prevent complications during and after pacemaker implantation, which leads to an increase in the quality of treatment in patients requiring pacemaker implantation.
Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the predictive factors of significant coronary artery disease in patients with pacemaker implantation to identify patients in need of coronary angiography at the time of pacemaker implantation.
This retrospective study was carried out to examine the patients’ files that were placed at the heart of Imam Reza Hospital during the period between March 2017 and September 2017. Demographic data, risk factors, echocardiography findings, and angiography, were collected and then recorded using a checklist. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software version 22 and Chi-square, and Mann-Whitney tests were used for determining significant variables.
A group of 102 patients who had undergone a permanent cardiac pacemaker insertion due to an atrioventricular (AV) Block were included in the study, and also coronary anatomy was determined coronary angiography. Based on the results, 13.7% of patients with cardiac pacemaker had obstructive coronary artery disease (stenosis > 70%). Factors affecting coronary artery stenosis on angiography include gender, chest pain, history of myocardial infarction, angioplasty, diabetes, smoking, history of aspirin intake, calcium blocker and Plavix, high hematocrit, ST elevation and ST depression in the ECG, and severe mitral regurgitation.
It seems that in most patients requiring permanent pacemaker insertion because of the atrioventricular (AV) Block, angiography does not change the patient’s fate, and so can be ignored. However, in patients who have several risk factors from the listed above, coronary angiography is recommended during admission.