Influenza Vaccination and Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease Among Taiwanese Elders-A Propensity Score-Matched Follow-Up Study

The present study aimed to evaluate the association between influenza vaccination and the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among elderly persons. This retrospective cohort study used the Geriatric Dataset of Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database (2000-2013). Patients aged ≥ 65 years who had been hospitalized for the first episodes of myocardial infarction were eligible. The vaccinated cohort comprised patients who received one dose of influenza vaccine within 180 days after discharge. The unvaccinated cohort included those who did not receive influenza vaccination and was propensity score-matched (1:1) for known CVD risk factors. All-cause death, acute myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death, and hospitalization for heart failure were assessed 1 year after the 181st day after hospital discharge. Compared with the matched cohort (n = 4,350), the vaccinated cohort (n = 4,350) had significantly lower incidences of all-cause death (hazard ratios [HR] 0.82, 95% CI [confidence interval] 0.73-0.92), myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.74-0.96), and hospitalization for heart failure (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.74-0.92). The association between influenza vaccination and reduction of CVDs was similar across different subgroups. Cumulative incidence curves of the CVDs of interest for the two cohorts separated within the initial 3 months of follow-up (P < 0.05). Influenza vaccination was associated with a reduced risk of CVD in the elderly population with previous myocardial infarction.