Influencing factors of lung cancer in nonsmoking women: systematic review and meta-analysis


Background: Epidemiological studies have shown that some factors other than smoking may affect the risk of lung cancer in women, but the results are controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the influencing factors of lung cancer in nonsmoking women.

Methods: Both English and Chinese databases were searched for publications from 1990 to 2020. All included studies were assessed according to the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). The pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of influential factors were analyzed using the meta-analysis method, and the publication bias and sensitivity were analyzed.

Results: Among the five categories, the pooled OR of cooking factors category was the highest. Among 42 influencing factors, there were frequent fried food (OR = 2.42, 95% CI: 1.73-3.38) and long menstrual cycle (0.54, 95% CI: 0.39-0.75). A positive association of history of lung diseases/family lung/all cancer with lung cancer among Asian nonsmoking women (1.82, 95% CI: 1.60-2.07). Unlike other regions, cooking factors were the main risk factor for lung cancer in Asian.

Conclusion: The meta-analysis suggests that cooking habits, diet, passive smoking, history of cancer and lung disease, and female reproduction are related to lung cancer in nonsmoking women. However, additional studies are warranted to extend this finding.