Impact of Cumulative Smoking Exposure on Subclinical Degenerative Aortic Valve Disease in Apparently Healthy Male Workers



Little is known regarding the impact of cumulative smoking exposure and smoking cessation on subclinical degenerative aortic valve (DAV) disease.


We examined associations of smoking status, cigarette-years of smoking, and years since quitting smoking with subclinical DAV disease defined by echocardiography.


Of 756 apparently healthy male workers, 154 had DAV including 63 with DAV with ≥2 leaflets calcification (DAV ≥2 cal). Compared with never smokers, ever smokers had higher risk of DAV and DAV ≥2 cal; odds ratios (95% CI) were 2.883 (1.800-4.618) (p<0.001) and 5.281 (2.297-12.138) (p<0.001), respectively. Both current and former smokers had dose-dependent relationships of cigarette-years on DAV and DAV ≥2 cal (P for trend, <0.001 for both DAV, in both smokers). In current smokers with >400-≤800 and with >800 cigarette-years, odds ratios (95%CIs) were 3.201 (1.690-6.063) (p<0.001) and 5.326 (2.800-10.053) (p<0.001) for DAV, 7.460 (2.828-19.680) (p<0.001) and 8.397 (3.146-22.414) (p<0.001) for DAV ≥2 cal, respectively. In former smokers with >800 cigarette-years, odds ratios (95%CI) were 3.780 (1.970-7.254) (p<0.001) for DAV, 10.035 (3.801-26.496) (p<0.001) for DAV ≥2 cal. Compared with current smokers, former smokers with quitting smoking >10 years had significantly lower risk of DAV and DAV ≥2 cal.


In apparently healthy male workers, DAV disease was strongly associated with smoking. Cumulative smoking exposure was associated with dose-dependent relationship on subclinical DAV disease both in current smokers and former smokers.