Immunotherapy Combining Tumor and Endothelium Cell Lysis With Immune Enforcement by Recombinant MIP-3α Newcastle Disease Virus in a Vessel-Targeting Liposome Enhances Antitumor Immunity

Abstract

Background: Several agents for oncolytic immunotherapy have been approved for clinical use, but monotherapy is modest for most oncolytic agents. The combination of several therapeutic strategies through recombinant and nanotechnology to engineer multifunctional oncolytic viruses for oncolytic immunotherapy is a promising strategy.

Methods: An endothelium-targeting iRGD-liposome encapsulating a recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV), which expresses the dendritic cell (DC) chemokine MIP-3α (iNDV3α-LP), and three control liposomes were constructed. MIP-3α, HMGB1, IgG, and ATP were detected by western blotting or ELISA. The chemotaxis of DCs was examined by Transwell chambers. The phenotypes of the immune cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. The antitumor efficiency was investigated in B16 and 4T1 tumor-bearing mice. Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry were used to observe the localization of liposomes, molecular expression and angiogenesis. Synergistic index was calculated using the data of tumor volume, tumor angiogenesis and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes.

Results: Compared with NDV-LP, treatment with iNDV3α-LP and NDV3α-LP induced stronger virus replication and cell lysis in B16 and 4T1 tumor cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with the best response observed following iNDV3α-LP treatment. B16 and 4T1 cells treated with iNDV3α-LP produced more damage-associated molecular pattern molecules, including secreted HMGB1, ATP, and calreticulin. Moreover, iNDV3α-LP specifically bound to αvβ3-expressing 4T1 cells and HUVECs and to tumor neovasculature. Tumor growth was significantly suppressed, and survival was longer in iNDV3α-LP-treated B16-bearing and 4T1-bearing mice. A mechanism study showed that iNDV3α-LP treatment initiated the strongest tumor-specific cellular and humoral immune response. Moreover, iNDV3α-LP treatment could significantly suppress tumor angiogenesis and reverse the tumor immune suppressive microenvironment in both B16-bearing and 4T1-bearing mice.

Conclusions: In this study, iNDV3α-LP had several functions, such as tumor and vessel lysis, MIP-3α immunotherapy, and binding to αvβ3-expressing tumor and its neovasculature. iNDV3α-LP treatment significantly suppressed tumor angiogenesis and reversed the tumor immunosuppressive microenvironment. These findings offer a strong rationale for further clinical investigation into a combination strategy for oncolytic immunotherapy, such as the formulation iNDV3α-LP in this study.

Keywords: combined modality therapy; immunogenicity, vaccine; immunotherapy; oncolytic virotherapy; tumor microenvironment.