Update on Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Disparities for the United States: A Population-Based Study from the United States Cancer Statistics Database, 2010 Through 2014

BACKGROUND:

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has been associated with a more aggressive histology, poorer prognosis, and nonresponsiveness to hormone therapy. It is imperative that cancer research identify factors that drive disparities and focus on prevention.

METHODS: 

Using the United States Cancer Statistics database, the authors examined differences between TNBCs compared with all other breast cancers with regard to age, race/ethnicity, and stage at diagnosis.

RESULTS: 

A total of 1,151,724 cases of breast cancer were identified from 2010 through 2014, with the triple-negative phenotype accounting for approximately 8.4% of all cases. In unadjusted analyses, non-Hispanic black women (odds ratio [OR], 2.27; 95% CI, 2.23-2.31) and Hispanic women (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.19-1.25) had higher odds of diagnosis when compared with non-Hispanic white women. Women aged <40 years had the highest odds of diagnosis compared with women aged 50 to 64 years (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.90-2.01). Diagnosis at American Joint Committee on Cancer stage III and beyond conferred higher odds of the diagnosis of TNBC (OR for stage III, 1.69 [95% CI, 1.68-1.72]; and OR for stage IV, 1.47 [95% CI, 1.43-1.51]). Results varied slightly in adjusted analyses.

CONCLUSIONS: 

The results of the current study demonstrated that there is a significant burden of disease in TNBC diagnosed among women of color, specifically non-Hispanic black women, and younger women. Additional studies are needed to determine drivers of disparities between race, age, and stage of disease at diagnosis.