Trends in the surgical management of malignant ovarian germ-cell tumors

Objective: To evaluate trends in the surgical management of young women and pediatric patients with malignant ovarian germ cell tumors (MOGCTs) and associated survival outcomes.

Materials and methods: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database we identified patients under 40 years who underwent surgery between 1994 and 2014. The Joinpoint Regression Program was employed to investigate the presence of temporal trends and calculate average annual percent change (AAPC) rates. For analysis purposes two age groups were formed; pediatric/adolescent (≤21 yrs) and young adult (22-40 yrs). Histology was categorized into dysgerminoma, immature teratoma, yolk-sac tumor, mixed germ cell tumor and other histology. Cancer specific survival was compared using log-rank tests.

Results: A total of 2238 patients were identified, with median age 21 years. Only 12.4% underwent hysterectomy. One third underwent omentectomy, and one half underwent lymphadenectomy (LND). A decrease in the rate of omentectomy (AAPC: -2.15, 95% CI: -3.4, -0.9) and hysterectomy (AAPC: -3.31, 95% CI: -6.1, -0.4) was observed. There was no change in the rate of LND (AAPC: 0.17, 95% CI: -0.7, 1.1). Pediatric patients were less likely to undergo omentectomy (30.2% vs 35.5%, p < 0.001), hysterectomy (3.5% vs 22%, p < 0.001) and LND (45.6% vs 54.7%, p < 0.001). There were no apparent survival differences according to the performance of hysterectomy, omentectomy or LND, when stratified by early (stage I) and advanced stage (II-IV), (p > 0.05).

Conclusions: Pediatric patients with MOGCTs undergo less extensive surgical staging. A trend towards less extensive surgical procedures for young women over time was observed, without an apparent detrimental effect on cancer specific survival.