Trends in incidence and mortality of esophageal cancer in Inner Mongolia, 2010-2015

Background: Esophageal cancer is among the leading cancer types in Inner Mongolia. This study aimed to investigate the incidence and mortality rates of esophageal cancer in 2015 and the trends in these rates in the 2010-2015 period in this region.

Methods: National Colorectal Cancer Roundtable (NCCR) screening methods and criteria were used to extract data from 10 cancer registries stratified by area (urban/rural), sex, and age group. The Chinese standard population in 2000 and Segi’s world population were used to calculate age-standardized rates. The annual percentage change (APC) in these rates was calculated using the Joinpoint Regression Program.

Results: In 2015, Inner Mongolia had 4324 new cases (4027 male vs. 297 female patients) and 3559 deaths (3300 male vs. 259 female patients) from esophageal cancer. The crude incidence, age-standardized incidence by Chinese population, age-standardized incidence by world population, and cumulative incidence were 13.45/100 000, 9.92/100 000, 10.18/100 000, and 1.30%, respectively. The corresponding figures for mortality were 11.32/100 000, 8.35/100 000, 8.53/100 000, and 1.04%. The incidence and mortality increased with age between 40 and 80 years. The rates in rural dwellers, especially men, showed negative APC (-13.25% vs. -11.08%; P < 0.05).

Conclusions: The incidence and mortality rates of esophageal cancer in Inner Mongolia increased between 2010 and 2015. The rates were higher in men in rural areas, middle-aged and elderly individuals. Prevention and control programs focused on these groups, in addition to early diagnosis and treatment of esophageal cancer, are needed to reduce these rates.

Key points: Significant findings of the study: In Inner Mongolia, incidence and mortality rates of esophageal cancer were higher in urban areas than in rural areas and in men than in women between 2010 and 2015, and in middle-aged and elderly than in younger people.

What this study adds: Prevention and control programs, in addition to early diagnosis and treatment of esophageal cancer, should be tailored to specifically target men in rural areas and middle-aged and elderly individuals in order to reduce the incidence and mortality rates of this pathology.

Keywords: Esophageal cancer; Inner Mongolia; incidence; mortality; trend.