The Effect of Maximum Tumor Diameter by MRI on Disease Control in Intermediate and High-risk Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Brachytherapy Boost


Background: Larger maximum tumor diameter (MTD) has been associated with worse prostate cancer (PCa) outcomes. However, the impact of MTD in PCa treated with external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy boost (EBRT+BB) remains unknown.

Materials and methods: Patients with PCa treated with EBRT+BB were identified from an institutional database. Clinical data including MTD, age, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) use, prostate specific antigen (PSA), International Society of Urologic Pathology (ISUP) group, clinical T-stage, and presence of adverse pathology on imaging were retrospectively collected. Multivariable and univariable cox proportional hazards models for biochemical failure (BF) and distant metastasis (DM) were produced with MTD grouped by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) cut-point. Cumulative hazard functions for BF and DM were compared with log-rank test and stratified by ISUP group.

Results: Of 191 patients treated with EBRT+BB, 113 had MTD measurements available. Larger MTD was associated with increased ADT use and seminal vesicle involvement. ROC optimization identified MTD of 24 mm as the optimal cut-point for both BF and DM. MTD was independently associated with both BF (HR 8.61, P = .048, 95% CI 1.02-72.97) and DM (HR 8.55, P = .05, 95% CI 1.00-73.19). In patients with ISUP group 4 to 5 disease, MTD > 24 mm was independently associated with increased risk of DM (HR 10.13, P = .04, 95% CI 1.13-91.12).

Conclusions: This is the first study to evaluate MTD in the setting of EBRT+BB. These results demonstrate that MTD is independently associated with BF and metastasis. This suggests a possible role for MTD in risk assessment models and clinical decision-making for men receiving EBRT+BB.