Sites of Synchronous Distant Metastases and Prognosis in Prostate Cancer Patients with Bone Metastases at Initial Diagnosis: A Population-Based Study of 16,643 Patients


Bone is a preferential site for prostate cancer (PCa) metastasis. However, sites of synchronous distant metastases in PCa patients with bone metastases at initial diagnosis and their impacts on prognosis are still unclear, limiting our ability to better stratify and treat the patients. In this study, we examined the sites of synchronous extra-skeletal metastases in de novo PCa patients with bone metastases and their associated prognoses.


In total, 16,643 de novo PCa patients with bone metastases from the SEER database were included. After stratification of metastatic sites (bone, lung, liver, and brain) and treatment modalities, overall survival (OS) and independent predictors of OS, were analyzed.


Lung was the most frequent site of synchronous metastases, followed by liver, while brain metastases were relatively uncommon. Patients with bone-only metastases showed the longest mean survival time (35.87 months, p < 0.001), followed by patients with bone and lung metastases (30.74 months, p < 0.001). Patients with bone and liver metastases had the shortest mean survival time (17.39 months, p < 0.001). Age > 70 years, unmarried status, high tumor grade, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) > 50 ng/ml, and Gleason score ≥ 8 were associated with poor OS (all p < 0.01). Asian or Pacific Islander ethnic background was associated with a favorable OS (all p < 0.01). Chemotherapy improved OS in patients without brain metastases (all p < 0.05). For patients with bone-only metastases, radical prostatectomy (RP) (HR, 0.339; 95% CI 0.231-0.495; p < 0.001), brachytherapy (BT) (HR, 0.567; 95% CI 0.388-0.829; p = 0.003), and chemotherapy (HR, 0.850; 95% CI 0.781-0.924; p < 0.001) were associated with prolonged OS.


Age, race, tumor grade, PSA, Gleason score, sites of synchronous extra-skeletal metastases, as well as treatment modalities affected OS in newly diagnosed PCa patients with bone metastases. Synchronous liver metastases were associated with poor OS. Chemotherapy improved OS in patients without brain metastases. RP and BT improved OS in patients with bone-only metastases. Further investigation is warranted to validate these findings.