Racial disparities in uterine and ovarian carcinosarcoma: A population-based analysis of treatment and survival

Objective: To investigate racial disparities in uterine carcinosarcoma (UCS) and ovarian carcinosarcoma (OCS) in Commission on Cancer®-accredited facilities.

Methods: Non-Hispanic Black (NHB) and non-Hispanic White (NHW) women in the National Cancer Database diagnosed with stage I-IV UCS or OCS between 2004 and 2014 were eligible. Differences by disease site or race were compared using Chi-square test and multivariate Cox analysis.

Results: There were 2830 NHBs and 7366 NHWs with UCS, and 280 NHBs and 2586 NHWs with OCS. Diagnosis of UCS was more common in NHBs (11.5%) vs. NHWs (3.7%) and increased with age (P < .0001). OCS diagnosis remained <5% in both races and all ages. NHBs with UCS or OCS were more common in the South and more likely to have a comorbidity score ≥ 1, low neighborhood income and Medicaid or no insurance (P < .0001). Diagnosis at stage II-IV was more common in NHBs than NHWs with UCS but not OCS. NHBs with both UCS and OCS were less likely to undergo surgery and to achieve no gross residual disease with surgery (P = .002). Risk of death in NHB vs. NHW patients with UCS was 1.38 after adjustment for demographic factors and dropped after sequential adjustment for comorbidity score, neighborhood income, insurance status, stage and treatment by 4%, 16%, 7%, 19% and 10%, respectively, leaving 43.5% of the racial disparity in survival unexplained. In contrast, risk of death in NHBs vs. NHWs with OCS was 1.19 after adjustment for demographic factors and became insignificant after adjustment for comorbidity. Race was an independent prognostic factor in UCS but not in OCS.

Conclusions: Racial disparities exist in characteristics, treatment and survival in UCS and OCS with distinctions that merit additional research.