Introduction: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B-cell neoplasm characterized by clonal expansion of malignant plasma cells (MM cells) in the bone-marrow (BM) compartment. BM mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) from newly diagnosed MM patients were shown to be involved in MM pathogenesis and chemoresistance. The patients displayed a distinct transcriptome and were functionally different from healthy donors’ (HD) MSC. Our aim was to determine whether MM-MSC also contributed to relapse.
Methods: We obtained and characterized patients’ MSC samples at diagnosis, two years after intensive treatment, without relapse and at relapse.
Results: Transcriptomic analysis revealed differences in gene expression between HD and MM-MSC, whatever the stage of the disease. An easier differentiation towards adipogenesis at the expense of osteoblatogeneis was observed, even in patients displaying a complete response to treatment. Although their transcriptome was similar, we found that MSC from relapsed patients had an increased immunosuppressive ability, compared to those from patients in remission.
Conclusion: We demonstrated that imprinting of MSC transcriptome demonstrated at diagnosis of MM, persisted even after the apparent disappearance of MM cells induced by treatment, suggesting the maintenance of a local context favorable to relapse.