Since the discovery of BRCA1 and BRCA2, multiple high- and moderate-penetrance genes have been reported as risk factors for hereditary breast cancer, ovarian cancer, or both; however, it is unclear whether these findings represent the complete genetic landscape of these cancers. Systematic investigation of the genetic contributions to breast and ovarian cancers is needed to confirm these findings and explore potentially new associations.
To confirm reported and identify additional predisposition genes for breast or ovarian cancer.
In this sample of 11 416 patients with clinical features of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, or both who were referred for genetic testing from 1200 hospitals and clinics across the United States and of 3988 controls who were referred for genetic testing for noncancer conditions between 2014 and 2015, whole-exome sequencing was conducted and gene-phenotype associations were examined. Case-control analyses using the Genome Aggregation Database as a set of reference controls were also conducted.
Breast cancer risk associated with pathogenic variants among 625 cancer predisposition genes; association of identified predisposition breast or ovarian cancer genes with the breast cancer subtypes invasive ductal, invasive lobular, hormone receptor-positive, hormone receptor-negative, and male, and with early-onset disease.
Of 9639 patients with breast cancer, 3960 (41.1%) were early-onset cases (≤45 years at diagnosis) and 123 (1.3%) were male, with men having an older age at diagnosis than women (mean [SD] age, 61.8 [12.8] vs 48.6 [11.4] years). Of 2051 women with ovarian cancer, 445 (21.7%) received a diagnosis at 45 years or younger. Enrichment of pathogenic variants were identified in 4 non-BRCA genes associated with breast cancer risk: ATM (odds ratio [OR], 2.97; 95% CI, 1.67-5.68), CHEK2 (OR, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.40-3.56), PALB2 (OR, 5.53; 95% CI, 2.24-17.65), and MSH6 (OR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.35-5.44). Increased risk for ovarian cancer was associated with 4 genes: MSH6 (OR, 4.16; 95% CI, 1.95-9.47), RAD51C (OR, not estimable; false-discovery rate-corrected P = .004), TP53 (OR, 18.50; 95% CI, 2.56-808.10), and ATM (OR, 2.85; 95% CI, 1.30-6.32). Neither the MRN complex genes nor CDKN2A was associated with increased breast or ovarian cancer risk. The findings also do not support previously reported breast cancer associations with the ovarian cancer susceptibility genes BRIP1, RAD51C, and RAD51D, or mismatch repair genes MSH2 and PMS2.
The results of this large-scale exome sequencing of patients and controls shed light on both well-established and controversial non-BRCA predisposition gene associations with breast or ovarian cancer reported to date and may implicate additional breast or ovarian cancer susceptibility gene candidates involved in DNA repair and genomic maintenance.