First-degree family history of breast cancer is associated with prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis

BACKGROUND:

The relationship between first-degree family history of female breast cancer and prostate cancer risk in the general population remains unclear. We performed a meta-analysis to determine the association between first-degree family history of female breast cancer and prostate cancer risk.

METHODS:

Databases, including MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science, were searched for all associated studies that evaluated associations between first-degree family history of female breast cancer and prostate cancer risk up to December 31, 2018. Information on study characteristics and outcomes were extracted based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis(PRISMA) statement and Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines. The quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach.

RESULTS:

Eighteen studies involving 17,004,892 individuals were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with no family history of female breast cancer, history of female breast cancer in first-degree relatives was associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer[relative risk (RR) 1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-1.25] with moderate-quality evidence. A history of breast cancer in mothers only (RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.10-1.28) and sisters only (RR 1.71, 95% CI 1.43-2.04) was associated with increased prostate cancer risk with moderate-quality evidence. However, a family history of breast cancer in daughters only was not associated with prostate cancerincidence (RR 1.74, 95% CI 0.74-4.12) with moderate-quality evidence. A family history of female breast cancer in first-degree relatives was associated with an 18% increased risk of lethal prostate cancer (95% CI 1.04-1.34) with low-quality evidence.

CONCLUSIONS:

This review demonstrates that men with a family history of female breast cancer in first-degree relatives had an increased risk of prostate cancer, including risk of lethal prostate cancer. These findings may guide screening, earlier detection, and treatment of men with a family history of female breast cancer in first-degree relatives.