Effects of tumor origins and therapeutic options on the prognosis of hepatic neuroendocrine tumors: A retrospective study

Hepatic neuroendocrine tumors (HNETs) are uncommon neoplasms that can be subdivided into 2 types: primary and metastatic HNETs. Due to its rarity, heterogeneity and complexity, the diagnosis, treatment modalities and prognosis are still controversial.This retrospective study reviewed the effects of tumor origins and therapeutic options on the prognosis of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors with liver metastasis (GEP-NETLM) and primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumors (PHNETs), providing additional evidence for clinicians evaluating patients.HNETs consisted of PHNETs and GEP-NETLM. GEP-NETLM (76.2%, 112/147) was more common, which was mainly manifested as multiple lesions in both lobes of the liver. PHNETs were relatively rare (23.8%, 35/147) and were mainly single lesion located in the right lobe of the liver. In patients with GEP-NETLM, primary tumor resection could prolong survival (P = .044). As the most widely used treatment method, systematic therapy alone could not achieve a satisfactory survival. However, the combination with hepatectomy or liver-directed therapy improved the prognosis (P = .023). As the main treatment, patients with PHNETs treated with local therapy could achieve a better prognosis (P = .049). Compared with PHNETs patients, GEP-NETLM patients with higher ki-67 index showed higher mortality and poorer prognosis (P = .006).Therefore, patients with PHNETs can be distinguished from GEP-NETLM by comprehensive imaging examinations and long-term follow-ups. The choice of appropriate treatment strategies can improve the prognosis of HNETs patients.